EBRD-supported BAKAD project in Kazakhstan reaches financial close
Consider extending policy scenarios based on fuel switching with various price alternatives by developing additional scenarios analysing a range of fuel mixes and demand-side options. Identify additional data requirements, take steps to acquire and keep up-to-date the data necessary to develop tools for strategic planning and monitoring of the supply, demand and consumption of energy throughout the economy.
Consider establishing an analytical centre to interpret statistics and provide modelling in order to inform policy making. Co-ordinate effective implementation of demand-side policies, especially in the energy efficiency and district heating segments. Scale up efforts to raise public awareness of available mechanisms and incentives for energy savings, with particular emphasis on the buildings, residential and transport sectors.
Kazakhstan , the largest country fully within the Eurasian Steppe , has been a historical “crossroads” and home to numerous different peoples, states and empires throughout history. Human activity in the region began with the extinct Pithecanthropus and Sinanthropus one million—, years ago in the Karatau Mountains and the Caspian and Balkhash areas. Neanderthals were present from , to 40, years ago in the Karatau Mountains and central Kazakhstan.
Modern Homo sapiens appeared from 40, to 12, years ago in southern, central, and eastern Kazakhstan. After the end of the last glacial period 12, to 5, years ago , human settlement spread across the country and led to the extinction of the mammoth and the woolly rhinoceros. Hunter-gatherer communes invented bows and boats, and used domesticated wolves and traps for hunting.
The Neolithic Revolution was marked by the appearance of animal husbandry and agriculture, giving rise to the Atbasar,  Kelteminar ,  Botai,  and Ust-Narym cultures. The fourth and third millennia witnessed the beginning of metal production, the manufacture of copper tools, and the use of casting molds. In the second millennium BCE, ore mining developed in central Kazakhstan. The change in climate forced the massive relocation of populations in and out of the steppe belt. The dry period which lasted from the end of the second millennium to the beginning of the 1st millennium BCE caused the depopulation of the arid belts and river-valley oasis areas; the populations of these areas moved north to the forest steppe.
Following with the end of the arid period at the beginning of the first millennium BCE, nomadic populations migrated into Kazakhstan from the west and the east, repopulating abandoned areas. These included several Indo-Iranians , often known collectively as the Saka. During the fourth century CE the Huns controlled Kazakhstan, absorbing 26 independent territories and uniting a number of steppe and forest peoples into a single state.
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To bring Kazakhstan standards more in line with international standards, in Kazakhstan adopted a number of laws and amendments to the existing Law on Technical Regulations including such laws as Safety of Chemical Products, Safety of Food Products, Safety of Toys, and Safety of Equipment and Machinery. The national file of standards now includes 71, rules and norms, including 16, representing international standards International Organization for Standardization and 2, 95 American national standards American National Standards Institute.
These standards are applied in all economic sectors. Under the current regulations, safety standards acquire the status of normative documents, mandatory for consideration, while quality standards will gradually become voluntary. The functions of governmental bodies will be limited to dealing with safety control issues. Technical regulations will acquire the status of laws and will be intended to ensure the safety of life and health of consumers.
Other standards relating to quality of goods will be given a voluntary status, and manufacturers will no longer be forced to follow outdated requirements dictating a shape, or color of goods as it was under previous legislation. Gosstandart is subdivided into three subordinate enterprises: the Kazakh Institute for Standardization and Certification , the Kazakh Institute of Metrology, and National Center of Accreditation.
Any goods imported into Kazakhstan and included on the mandatory list of goods are subject to the mandatory procedure of certification under national requirements. The list includes machines, cars, agricultural and telecommunication equipment, electro-technical equipment, construction materials and equipment, fuel, clothes, toys, food, medical and veterinary equipment, as well as drugs.
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The HiT profiles provide a source of descriptive, up-to-date and comparative per live births in is higher than the European Union (EU) average of Emergency posts provide a hour service in free-standing or hospital-based.
The Republic of Kazakhstan, according to Article 2 of the Constitution is a unitary State with a presidential form of government. The President is the head of the State and the highest executive authority of the Government who is elected by universal, equal and direct suffrage under a secret ballot for a term of 7 years, and may be re-elected for a second term Article 41 of the Constitution.
The President has broad authorities and, inter alia , the authority to initiate constitutional amendments, dissolve Parliament, veto legislation, appoint and dissolve the government and appoint local heads of government Article 44 of the Constitution. The legislative branch consists of two chambers acting on a permanent basis: the Senate and the Majilis.
The Senate consists of two deputies elected from each oblast, each major city and from the capital. The President appoints seven senators for the term of the Senate. The Majilis consists of 77 deputies, 67 of whom are elected from electoral districts in accordance with the current administrative and territorial units and ten are elected according to the party lists. In accordance with the Constitution, deputies of the Senate are elected for the term of six years and deputies of the Majilis, for the term of five years Section 4 of the Constitution.
The executive branch is represented by the Government, which is appointed and accountable to the President. The Government consists of a prime minister, several deputy prime ministers and ministers. The judicial power in Kazakhstan is exercised by courts through the constitutional, civil, administrative and other forms of judicial procedure as established by law.
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This page gathers key information on Kazakhstan’s negotiations to join the WTO. Kazakhstan became the nd WTO member on 30 November More photos. Problems viewing this page? If so, please contact webmaster wto.
Kazakhstan, the largest country fully within the Eurasian Steppe, has been a historical Age horses with the aid of radiocarbon dating from Kurgan 5 of the Novoilinovsky 2 terms “Kazakhs” and Cossacks (both names originating from the Turkic “free man”). This page was last edited on 1 August , at (UTC).
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The economic context of Kazakhstan
Ethnic Kazakhs, a mix of Turkic and Mongol nomadic tribes with additional Persian cultural influences, migrated to the region in the 15th century. The area was conquered by Russia in the 18th and 19th centuries, and Kazakhstan became a Soviet Republic in Repression and starvation associated with forced agricultural collectivization led to a massive number of deaths in the s.
Non-Muslim ethnic minorities departed Kazakhstan in large numbers from the mids through the mids and a national program has repatriated about a million ethnic Kazakhs from Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Mongolia, and the Xinjiang region of China back to Kazakhstan. As a result of this shift, the ethnic Kazakh share of the population now exceeds two-thirds.
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Our values Multiparty democracy and pluralism Promoting transition Environmental and social sustainability Integrity and compliance Backing gender equality Transparency. Eligibility checker. It is also the first PPP project in the region structured with the involvement of international advisors and through an open, international competitive process. The largest infrastructure project in Kazakhstan outside the oil and gas sector will help remove a major transport bottleneck in Almaty and increase the transit throughput capacity, while reducing local air pollution.
It will be responsible for the construction of 20 bridges, 8 interchanges and 22 overpasses. It also provides a solution for the environmental and transport problems Almaty has faced for a long time.
History of Kazakhstan
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